Living history in Bedfarde, Pennsylvania

Bedford, pocket preserving the past, offers the visitor to experience the history, allowing him to go on forging roads, inspected several important agreements and fortifications, and even to stay at the resort, which has caused its rise.

The former border guard, covered with hills, meadows and forests, called the soul to manifest her own property creation, as evidenced by the forts, which have risen from Harris Couples along the river Suskehanna in the east to Logstauna on the Ohio River in the west during the French and Indian War, one thousand seven hundred fifty-four for 1763 gg., marking the expansion of the British to the west, as the number of Shlyakhova GPS points, they were such names as Laytlenton, Loudon, Frederick, Reystaun / Bedford, Cumberland, Ligonier, necessity and Pete / Duquesne. However, two of double designations were to be the most important in the area of ​​development.

Where there are transport routes, settlements tend to grow as the city of Bedford as a fort, which was built by the British during the campaign against the French in 1758 on Forbes Road, which was formerly united the Indian trail. Later, they will grow into first on the Pennsylvania toll road platform that facilitates the transport of horses and wagons.

Strengthening Colonel Henry Boke, Deputy General John Forbes, the strengthening of irregular shape, which occupies 7000 square yards, carried by five bastions. Depth of four to five feet, three feet wide, surrounding its perimeter, supported by 18-foot length, laid out from the timber sides, carved out of the surrounding oak forests and grinded flat and tightly closed before inserted, while the onboard gallery continued from the central bastion in the north to the front edge of the water. Swivel guns guarded the corners.
Entrance is equipped with three gates – the most important of its south side, parallel to today's Pitt Street; a second, smaller, west; and a poster, which opens to the north.

Climbing up on the beach with views of the river, which was originally designed Fort Raystaun served as staging for 6790 troops moved westward, they were attacked while crossing the mountains navyazvayuchyya Alegheni but replenished necessary supplies before they proceeded to the Fort Pitt / Duquesne, stronghold of the French.

British strategy was successful: their opponents were defeated, effectively clearing the bar & # 39; er in the English control over the valley of the Ohio, and eventually America.

Reworked "Fort Bedford" at the end of 1758, after the fourth Duke of Bedford, England bastion served as a secondary purpose – to provide a sense of security from Indian attacks, his safety, contributing to the resettlement of people in search of agricultural valleys and rich forests. mountains. Thus, it provided the seeds from which grew as a result of the village is named, becoming the first county seat west of the mountains Tuskarara and, for some time, the whole of Western Pennsylvania, strategically located on the interstate road.

Set out in 1766, it was included in 29 years, 13 March.

Development District, which parallel the development of the city, was due to the discovery of coal on Broad top of the mountain, which led to the rails required to transport it to the iron factories in the area had begun, and caused a 100 percent increase in population between 1870 and 1890. Road network, which facilitates the transport of iron, wood, and the passengers were later supplemented and finally reach the next road, Highway Lincoln (Route 30), connecting Bedford to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Ternpik.

A short walking tour of the city of Bedford itself allows the visitor to go into the history of several important buildings.

For example, the National Museum of the American cover is in public school, built in 1859 at the expense of $ 7,000 and is open on the initial enrollment 211 students next year. Functioning as a school until it was sold to private interests in 1999, it contained a significant portion of its original structure, including its middle section, the ventilation system and the surrounding iron fence.

House Bedford County Courthouse, built by Solomon fillers between 1828 and 1829. The $ 7,500, the same evidence of originality, especially in the hours that are installed on the tower, which had to be wound hands after vigorous rise, until it was electrified in 1975, and two of his domestic, convenience stairs leading to the second floor, zalyatsanyya portrait. A pair of columns that characterize its facade, later donated by the filler that embodies God and left a fair deal.

The man on the monument, located at the intersection of Giuliani and Penn, was established in 1890 to honor the soldiers who sacrificed their lives during the Civil War, more than 20,000 schoolchildren were collected pennies in them. At current location it was moved in 1957.

Behind it is the first building of the courthouse and prison, built of blue limestone between 1774 and 1775.

One of the most significant structures – so much so that it was recognized as a National Historic Landmark in 1984 – this house Espy. Belonging to Colonel and Mrs. David Espy, he served as the headquarters of George Washington during the Whiskey rebellion in 1794, which resulted in the farmers of Western Pennsylvania protested against excise taxes imposed on alcohol Treasury Secretary Hamilton. Struck 13000th federal Washington's army, which is said about the surrounding areas for their own accommodation, it is noted first and only time a US president commanded the army in the field.

Time & # 39; ehavshysya in the hills until October, the rebels showed a defeat.

National House, which opened its doors to tired travelers as a hotel for nearly all of its existence, was strategically located on the Forbes Road, which is now designated "Pete Street."

Built as the House of the Court of Solomon Filler, Andersen house stands on land purchased in the name of William Pena, and was used as a medical cabinet at the front and rear of the Bank Aleggeni Pennsylvania. He served as the only such public storage between Pittsburgh and Chandsburgam.

Museum Fort Bedford:

The original meaning of the fortress was short-lived, and the place was only a historically significant event: trying to release prisoners that have occurred there, James Smith and his Black boys captured his September 17, 1769, but after the French War and India his garrison he had boiled down to a meager 12 and until 1775, when the border moved to Pittsburgh, he quickly came into disrepair.

In order to mark the two-year anniversary of the Bedford style building is a blockade formed by the logs and the dart, rose from his seat the original fort 200 years after it was built, in 1958, still sitting on a cliff with views of the Department of Cancer Raystown of Juniata. Section of the northern wall was added in 2006, adjacent to Fort Bedford Museum.

Padpadyalyayuchysya in the main gallery, transport facilities, the rear gallery, a mezzanine and a souvenir shop, a block building internally radiates an atmosphere of the new frontier of Western Pennsylvania, pointing to his collection, some 2000 artifacts, including the Indian inventory, civil war items, household items, carbines from flint , antique hand tools, women's clothing of the 19th century, the civil war cannon, wagon Konestaga dishes from stone ware, documents signed by some & # 39; it Peng, and registry resort Bedford-G ryngs that shows the signature of President Buchanan.

The focal point with the & # 39 is a scale model of the original fort, which reflects the way Forbes River Zhuniyata and its outskirts. But perhaps the most rare works in the collection & # 39 is the original flag in 1758. Gift of British troops in the still intended Fort Reystaun the fourth Duke of Bedford in England, sewn by hand, the red silk damask with satin flag in the upper left part of which is located a 23-inch Canton jack-Canton. Bedfard renaming in late 1758 in his honor. Although there is no evidence whether this was his official hanging in the officers' rooms and were exposed only during special occasions.
Nevertheless, the British officer Patriots seized him when freedom from British rule, expressed as the Declaration of Independence, his lips traveled to Bedford.

An example of the museum with the & # 39 is the only known British Red fly that survived the French and Indian War.

Old Bedford Village:

Fort Bedford Museum offers only a single taste of the city's past. But more than 40 original and restored log cabins, frames and stone structures consisting of Old Bedford Village allows visitors to step into the shoes by citizens and to walk on the trails him by interpreting saved here early pocket Pennsylvania life.

Passage through the bridge with a clay socket and a short passage through the welcome center returns it to the dawn of Pennsylvania as a colony where the gravel track, smoke plumes pulled by horses, riders, spiral pipes log home, people dress in clothes and strange metal sounds are heard from the blacksmith's workshop .

The village offers several examples of housing era. For example, Biddle House – a two-story structure of logs, initially built a few miles in the Dutch corner, and a & # 39 is one of the earliest in the complex. Its V-shaped double fireplace provides both warmth and cooking methods.

Hybrid housing, the house next door Kerr-Blasco, contains the remains of the building, which was built by Thomas Quintana in 1768 and James Hayden in 1790, both located in Bedford County.

Act 1802 Determine Semanek village house as a "log house", which originally stood in the village Ryot in the city town of West St. Clair. Its construction is used almost extinct chestnut.

Williams cabin hut typical of most first-generation immigrants who have lived so long, and the creation of enabling them to build a more important, while opposed to Victorian house Andersen collected from lumber Anandale hotel calls its vizagiyanski period.

Two schools are represented: Kniseli school standard configuration was built around Pleasantville in 1869 and was used until the 1930s, and accordingly named 8-square School, octagonal building, established in 1851, Nat Hoover in East St. Clair normally frequented by children from affluent seven & # 39; ads.

There are a variety of shops and services, where costumed citizens still practice the original methods. Inside, "Ice Cream" is the construction of the cottages of the 17th century, and the bakery "Pen" is believed to be built by William Nichols in 1808, still produces bought baked goods in their furnaces as "Bakery Old Bedford Wilde", as evidenced by the scent of her open the door. Light lunches can be enjoyed in the dark, decorated wooden cabin tavern Pendegrassa original analogue which was located near the walls of the Fort Bedford in the 1750s.

Other vital needs of this period can be obtained in the "Chandler" (candles), "Trash truck," "Cooper" (barrels and barrels), "The general store and post office," "Old Bedford Wilde Press" "Vindov County Bedford" "Shop for transportation", "Fisherman" Pottery, Uaytsmit (tin) and Broom.
Human power launched all the equipment in the country, as indicated by the pads on the legs and the bike that resembles a puzzle in the shop of furniture and wood Heminsa and forging school Entansana where the tools needed for many other crafts period, have developed, including the very shoes required for engine management of the day-horse.

The village is also taken care of ill, earthly human behavior in prison, which is a type that has been used until 1800 in the area, and ensured that his heavenly soul goes ashtray in Christ Church, a replica of the Church Union in 1806 that is made of logs and still stands to the west of Shellsburga.

Educational programs that use the rich resources of the village and give rise to the production of handicrafts, teach, paint and exhibit the life of the 18 Pennsylvania and the 19th century with the help of blankets, papalennya candles kuperstva, forge, manufacture baskets, spinning, weaving wheat, leather manufacture; kalavanne tin, making brooms, making dolls Maize Pappouse and horse buggies in a number of classes, lectures and excursions. Rural products of arts and crafts can be purchased at the gift shop welcome center.

Seasons and holidays are celebrated special events, such as exhibits of colonial crafts; festival with historical customs, costumes and cuisine; firefight with muzzle-loading; Civil reconstruction and French and Indian Wars; Old western weekend; murder mystery evenings; pumpkin; and old-fashioned Christmas carols, which they see as the village is lit by candles with lanterns.

Resort Bedford Springs:

Many important buildings and fortifications of Bedford allow the visitor to get acquainted with its history, but the resort Bedford Springs allows him to live it.

While the original coal and coal Bedford scum-Thap attracted people in this region, it was another major draw: mineral springs.

Back in 1796, Dr. John Anderson found that Native Americans have long known, namely that drinking and bathing in the water of the seven halibetav, limestone, sulfur and sweat sources given as a restorative, and therapeutic results. Incorporating into clinical practice, these otherwise free agent, he decided to buy 2200 hectares, surrounding them, and build their own house. But his private life in this idyllic setting was short-lived.

Traveling in Cumberland, Maryland, and then spending the final 21-mile trek in Bedford on a horse and wagon, a growing number of visitors were attracted to the area in search of healing powers of the springs, and Dr. Anderson originally placed them improvise. tents, cooking individual recipes based on individual health needs. bathing the room took shape in 1802.

But unquenchable thirst quickly demanded the replacement of temporary tents to more permanent accommodation and indicative premises – in the form of a stone at four years, whose most building blocks, as well as water were freely provided with sources on its sides adjacent mountain and trees. Constant at the location was only temporary in fulfilling its purpose, as the number of guests who have requested a demand for it, quickly exceeded its capacity.

According to a stranger material written by Joshua Galpinam in 1809, when the stone house has joined Krekfard and harbinger of Evita-Hausa, means included "a house with a large frame and a few smaller family for warm and cold baths and billiard room."

Swiss buildings and other rapidly rose from the once comfortable spaces.

Increasingly known for its comfortable accommodation, catering and activities that emphasize its natural environment, it always attracted visitors from the industrialization of the cities east coast, as well as a growing list of the rich and famous dignitaries. For example, a future US president and a native of Pennsylvania James Buchanan first visit Bedford Springs in 1821 year, and ultimately spent 40 summers, calling it "Summer White House". In 1848, James K. Polk was one of the ten sitting presidents to stay there, and behind him – Taylor, Taft, Polk, Harding and Eisenhower, and nine Supreme Court judges and countless celebrities. Buchanan himself was ten years later, this resort is the first transatlantic cable, which has sent the British Queen Victoria.

Travel in Bedford greatly facilitated in 1872 when rail access for the first time linked the area with power, such as Philadelphia, Washington and New York.

Developing into one of the greatest resorts in America in the late 19th century, it is properly reflected the golden age period with spring houses, bridges, gates and paths, and transatlantic cable had to serve only the first of many innovations associated with resorts. : For example, one of the first game of golf courses designed by Spencer Oldham, and ten years after this first indoor, mineral water pool to the source with a solarium and hydrotherapy was made was introduced in 1895.

Although medical advances tipped the scales on initial appointment Bedfardskay spring, her reputation of a luxury resort that caters to prestigious clients, has been firmly anchored in the area that created it – so much so that, in fact, that the central colonnade are now connects the main. dining room with a columned pavilion in Magnesia Springs through Schober Run.

His role, maintaining a luxury communications, changed between 1941 and 1943. When the US Navy, taking resort, has trained about 7,000 seafarers in electronic transactions, and then served as an insulator for nearly 200 Japanese diplomats captured in Germany during World War II of, while their NOT exchanged for American prisoners of war who were held in Asia.

Сучасныя ўплывы зноў былі аказаны ў 1950-х гадах з устаноўкай сістэмы кіравання навакольным асяроддзем і дажджавых сістэм.

Непазбежна папулярнасць змагалася з мэтай. Тэндэнцыі падарожжаў змяніліся, і, нягледзячы на ​​прызначэнне Нацыянальнай гістарычнай славутасцю ў 1984 годзе, ён працягваў зніжацца, пакуль не быў зачынены праз два гады. Наступная паводка развяла 200-гадовыя драўляныя сцены.

Але Bedford Springs Partners, па-ранейшаму выяўляючы бляск славы, набыў некалі вялікую славу маёмасці за 8 мільёнаў долараў, падвяргаючы яе маштабнай рэстаўрацыі ў 120 мільёнаў долараў, каб уваскрэсіць і вярнуць яе ў 1905 годзе залатога веку 1905 года і аднавіць дзверы 12 ліпеня , 2007 г. пасля перарыву былі выяўленыя восьмыя мінеральныя крыніцы. Пасля другаснага набыцця праз два гады ён быў перайменаваны ў "Курорт і спа курорт Omni Bedford Springs". "

Яе самаабвешчаная місія складаецца ў тым, каб "адкрыць дзверы гісторыі".

Размешчаны ў горным рэгіёне Алегхені паўднёва-цэнтральнай Пенсільваніі і з выглядам на даліну Камберленд, да курорта Бедфорд-Спрынгс можна звярнуцца па маленькім узгорку, які вярнуўся ў гісторыю, да захаванага часу, а потым перайшоўшы да белага, ганка абліцаваны фасад разгалістага асабняка. Перагаворваючы дагледжаныя газоны і ўрачыстыя сады сярод гукавых струменьчыкаў ручаёў і крыніц, наведвальнік выходзіць на кругавую дарогу, якая набліжаецца да двухпавярховай, цаглянай, антэ-звоннай каланады. Акрамя таго, што з'яўляецца нацыянальнай гістарычнай славутасцю, курорт з'яўляецца адначасова чатырма алмазнымі ўласцівасцямі Triple-A і адносіцца да ліку адным з гістарычных гатэляў Амерыкі.

Служачы асновай сувязі з сумессю сумежных стыляў будынка, сама каланада размяшчае гасцявую прыёмную, упрыгожаную арыгінальным амерыканскім сцягам 39 зорак; вестыбюль; размяшчэнне штодзённай, дадатковай пасляабедзеннай гарбаты; і лесвіца, якая вядзе да бальнай залы. Адзін з яго крылаў вядзе да каменнага інн з карчмай "Памежжа" і 1796 нумароў рэстаранаў, а другі вядзе міма рэстарана "Крыштальны нумар", праз бібліятэку, міма закусачнай "Сэра Сара", закрытага басейна і калідора у санаторый.

216 нумароў і чатыры апартаменты курорта, размешчаныя альбо ў Гістарычным, альбо ў новым спа-крыле, прасочваюцца гісторыяй і традыцыяй, але прапануюць сучасную раскошу, з аўтэнтычнымі ўзорамі і фактурамі, мармуровымі падлогамі і ганарыстасцямі ў сваіх ванных пакоях, егіпецкай пасцельнай бялізнай і сапраўднымі, мінулая эпоха нагадвае палкі.

Ёсць некалькі рэстаранаў.

Напрыклад, Крыштальная пакой раней была музычнай пакоем, а таксама выкарыстоўвалася як салон для жанчын. Адрамантаваны ў 1905 г. у час грандыёзнай кампаніі курорта, ён змяніў наверсе значныя па памерах аб'екты, якія потым сталі бальнай каланадай. У цяперашні час прадстаўлены экран з класічных дарыйскіх калонак з абодвух бакоў, ён спартыўны, арыгінальны, крышталёвыя люстры, якія адлюстроўваюць імя; люстэркі з пазалотай; Віктарыянскія крэслы з круглымі спінкамі; чатыры адценні сіняга; печыва; выставачная кухня; вінны склеп на 1500 бутэлек; і калекцыя гасцявых фотаздымкаў, зробленых паміж 1892 і 1898 гг., адкрываецца ў прыватнай зале Дэніэла Вебстэра.

Пагранічная карчма, размешчаная ў раздзеле «Стоўн-інн» гатэля, была прыпынкам для тратуараў, з якога ў вясковую карчму за тры вячэры былі перавезеныя першыя госці Бедфорд-Вясны. Упрыгожаныя артэфактамі перыяду, такімі як пастка для мядзведзя, інструменты, печка з дровамі і стракаты посуд, ён таксама мае бар і більярдны стол.

Пакой 1796 года, таксама размешчаны ў раздзеле Стоўн-інн, адлюстроўвае той самы год, калі доктар Джон Андэрсан упершыню набыў нерухомасць Бедфорд-Спрынгс і прасякае гэтую атмасферу 18-га стагоддзя амерыканскімі каланіяльнымі стэйкамі і катлетамі, куды ўваходзіць таксама выбар напрыклад, зубр, аленя, трус, дзік, перапёлак, дзічыну і горная стронга.

Крыты басейн з мінеральнымі крыніцамі вярнуўся да 1905 года і стаў аркестравай ямай, з якой гасцявалі больш стагоддзя таму.

Спа-цэнтры "Вечны Спа" плошчай 30 000 квадратных футаў ўключае ў сябе вільготныя і сухія працэдурныя кабінеты, ароматэрапію, масаж, сыход за тварам, сад і буцік, дзе вада практычна выкарыстоўваецца для мінеральных крыніц.

Памер канферэнц-цэнтра складае дзве траціны ў 20 000 квадратных футаў.

"Стары курс" – 18-дзірачнае поле для гольфа, якое адлюстроўвае выкананне Дональда Роса ў 1923 годзе, з'яўляецца трэцім падобным тварэннем пасля Спенсера Олдхэма ў 1895 годзе і перарывістай, дзевяціпавярховай, версіі А. У. Цілінгхаста 1912 года.

Курорт Бедфорд-Спрынгс, акрамя гольфа, прапануе шмат мерапрыемстваў, уключаючы плаванне на адкрытым паветры і на адкрытым паветры, пешыя прагулкі на веласіпедзе на 25 мілі трас, рыбалку ў патоку фарэлі з залатым медалём, катанне на байдарках, рафтынг і лыжныя гонкі, і праводзіць шырокі спектр функцый: ад сустрэч да вясельных конных вяселляў.